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Ryan Robinson
Ryan Robinson

Through Abandoned: The Forest Full HOT! Crack [Patch]

During the fall of 2014, I was fortunate to visit with about a dozen forest managers in New Hampshire to view and discuss the problems they had encountered with nuisance/invasive plants during the regeneration process. I very much appreciate the time and effort spent by these folks. The contacts were facilitated through a very helpful announcement by UNH Cooperative Extension. I also very much appreciate the comments and references provided by Professor Tom Lee, UNH.

Through Abandoned: The Forest Full Crack [Patch]

The properties were located throughout the State from far north to south, east to west. The purpose of the survey was to develop a beginning understanding of the scope of the problem: the nuisance plants involved, the forest types, the characteristics of the stands, and the possible silvicultural controls.

Mountain laurel: Found in certain southern New Hampshire locations as a thick understory that is heavily competitive on wet sites with very little advanced regeneration of other species. Oak/pine/hemlock is the usual forest type. The best control is group/patch/clearcut with as much ground disturbance as possible. On these wet sites, winter harvests with a minimal/moderate snow cover and frozen skid trails should be adequate. Resprouting of laurel does not appear to be a heavy competitive problem. Following the harvest, there should be a scattering of oak on the skid trails, some pine in the areas between, as well as a significant proportion of black birch (which is not browsed by deer, and perhaps by moose). Mountain laurel also occurs on dry, somewhat rocky sites where it does not appear as vigorous as on the wet sites.

Prevention: Often the threat of invasive/nuisance species that will disrupt regeneration efforts can be anticipated by the presence of these species, alone or in combination, along forest edges and roads or in prior skid trails. Prior to harvest, a survey of the stand to detect the presence of these species is well worthwhile. If present in these fringe areas, this might be the optimum time to deal with the problem by chemical means, or a combination of chemical/mechanical approaches. If this is not possible, a strategy to deal with the potential problem should be carefully developed using the suggestions above.

Sunlight strikes the tropics almost straight on, producing intense solar energy that keeps temperatures high, between 21 and 30C (70 and 85F). High temperatures keep the air warm and wet, with an average humidity of between 77% and 88%. Such humid air produces extreme and frequent rainfall, ranging between 200-1000 centimeters (80-400 inches) per year. Tropical rainforests are so warm and moist that they produce as much as 75% of their own rain through evaporation and transpiration.

The Chimbu people live in the highland rainforest on the island of New Guinea. The Chimbu practice subsistence agriculture through shifting cultivation. This means they have gardens on arable land that has been cleared of vegetation. A portion of the plot may be left fallow for months or years. The plots are never abandoned and are passed on within the family.

Nonprofit organizations are tackling rainforest conservation through a variety of different approaches. The Rainforest Trust, for example, supports local conservation groups around the world in purchasing and managing critically important habitats. In Ecuador, the Rainforest Trust worked with the Fundación Jocotoco to acquire 495 more hectares (1,222 more acres) for the Río Canandé Reserve, considered to have one of the highest concentrations of endemic and threatened species in the world. Partnering with Burung Indonesia, the Trust created a 8,900-hectare (22,000-acre) reserve on Sangihe Island to protect the highest concentration of threatened bird species in Asia.

Rusty patched bumble bee habitat can be divided conceptually into nesting and wintering, as well as foraging habitat types, based on the relative timing of pollen and nectar availability. The locations of pollen and nectar sources for the rusty patched bumble bee may vary throughout the growing season.

We assume that the rusty patched bumble bee nests in upland grasslands and shrublands that contain forage during the summer and fall and as far as 30 meters into the edges of forest and woodland. In 2019, J. Lanternman and others summarized 451 observations of nest-searching behavior by queens of nine bumble bee species. Although the rusty patched bumble bee was not among the nine species observed, their observations may shed some light on how the species searches for nest sites. J. Lanternman and others observed queens searching for nesting sites in open grassland habitats, but nest-seeking queens favored woody transitional habitats over open habitats.

Little is known about the overwintering habitats of rusty patched bumble bee queens, but based on observations of other species we assume that rusty patched bumble bee queens overwinter in upland forest and woodlands. Other species of Bombus typically form a chamber in loose, soft soil, a few centimeters deep in bare earth, moss, under tree litter or in bare-patches within short grass and may avoid areas with dense vegetation, as documented by A.V. Alford in 1969 and later by A.R. Liczner and S. Colla in 2019. Overwintering habitat preferences may be species-specific and dependent on factors such as slope orientation and timing of emergence. Most queens in England were found in well-drained soil, shaded from direct sunlight in banks or under trees and free from living ground vegetation, as documented by A.V. Alford in 1969. A recent review of published literature shows that overwintering queens have been found mostly in shaded areas, usually near trees and in banks without dense vegetation, as noted by A.R. Liczner and S. Colla in 2019. The only known documented overwintering rusty patched bumble bee queen, discovered in a maple oak-woodland, which was about 0.5 kilometers into the woodlands, was in Wisconsin in 2016. It was found under a few centimeters of leaf litter and loose soil, as documented by B. Herrick from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Based on a review of rusty patched bumble bee observation records, in most years, the rusty patched bumble bee may only be active above ground between about March 15 through October 10 and April 10 through October 10, south and north of 42º latitude, respectively. Although air temperatures may be conducive to activity later in the fall, cessation of flight appears to be timed with the passing of native fall flowers," as noted by D.F. Schweitzer and others in 2012.

Rusty patched bumble bees have an annual life cycle. Workers can be seen in the field several weeks after nest establishment throughout the summer and into early fall, late June through September. Males are in typically in flight during late summer and fall, August through September. The timing for observing queens depends on your geographical location. For example, in southern Wisconsin, queens, which are distinguished by their larger size and other characteristics described in the physical characteristics section, are in flight in spring, roughly April through May, and then again in late summer and fall.

Colonies produce reproductive males and queens in the late summer. The reproductive individuals leave the nest and mate. The workers and males die and only the queens enter diapause and overwinter. Little is known about rusty patched bumble bee mating behavior. The female emerges from diapause in the spring and then searches for a suitable nesting site. After establishing the nest, the queen lays eggs which hatch after approximately four days. The larvae feed on pollen and nectar and go through four instars before pupating, further developing and eventually hatching as full-size adults. Development time can take approximately five weeks, but can vary with temperature and food, as documented by D.V. Alford in 1975. Rusty patched bumble bee larvae live in cells and are fed individually by adults, which is called pollen-storer behavior, as documented by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada in 2010.

Let your imagination run free during the Halloween season in Big Bear Lake! Fall colors turn the Valley into a living postcard, full moon nights illuminate the forest, and Halloween events make the community a family friendly destination where everyone is invited.

Throughout the year there are many opportunities to hike the NCT or get involved in activities with other Allegheny National Forest (ANF) Chapter members. You can enjoy the Trail with friends and family, or join a guided hike. With almost 100 miles of the North Country Trail in the ANF, there are always new places to explore. Each member can bring their own skills and interests in helping to maintain trail or promote trail events. Trail work days are held once or twice a month on weekends. On those days members enjoy time together accomplishing bigger projects. Members can volunteer to maintain a section of trail, or get involved with planning and promoting the Trail and Chapter events. Our Chapter sponsors the Allegheny 100 Hiking Challenge each June. The A-100 event challenges hikers to traverse 25, 50, 75 or 100 miles in 50 hours. Other Chapter events include monthly hikes, the NCNST Day celebration in September and a National Trails Day event in June. For those interested in geocaching, there are over 100 caches placed along the Trail through the ANF, approximately one per mile. A pathtag is awarded for bagging 50 caches. Finally, a completion patch is awarded by the NCTA ANF Chapter for logging all all NCT miles in the ANF. See a list of section completers here.

The Trail passes through approximately 97 miles of the ANF as it travels across the Allegheny Plateau. Its northern terminus is the PA/NY border and its southern terminus is the ANF border, 3 miles north of Route 66. This section has much to offer: Scenic views of the Allegheny reservoir, beautiful hemlock valleys, rock cities, fascinating evidence of past and present logging and oil industries, and many opportunities to view wildlife, including bear, deer, coyote, fishers, bobcats, songbirds, grouse and eagles. Varied habitats and terrain, along with frequent camping sites, make the NCT through the ANF a great destination for a day hike or a backpacking trip.There are many special places along the ANF section. In Tracy Ridge, the Trail runs on the eastern side of the Allegheny Reservoir, allowing for many scenic views and much solitude. The Trail passes through the Tionesta Scenic Area where remnants can be found of an old growth forest that was mostly destroyed by a tornado in 1985. The Trail now highlights the rebirth of this forest. Rock cities dot the terrain on many of the ridgelines. The most scenic of these are found in the popular Minister Creek valley. 350c69d7ab

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